6. Ders - Pronouns - Zamirler

Zamirler, nesnelerin ve kavramların gerçek adları yerine geçici olarak kullanılan kelimelerdir. Zamirlerin anlamları yoktur. Bir zamir tek başına hiçbir nesneyi karşılamaz, zihinde hiçbir nesne canlandırmaz, hiçbir kavram düşündürmez.
Bu nedenle, zamirlere isimlerin yerini tutan kelimelerdir diyebiliriz.

Zamirlerin çeşitleri vardır. Örneğin: şahıs zamirleri, işaret zamirleri, dönüşlülük zamirleri, soru zamirleri, belirsizlik zamirleri ve bağlama zamirleri gibi.

A- Personal Pronouns (Şahis Zamirleri)

Yalın halde kullanılan “I,YOU,HE,SHE,IT,ONE,WE,YOU,THEY” cümlelerin özneleri olup
“ME,YOU,HIM,HER,IT,ONE,US,YOU,THEM” nesneleridir. Örneğin ;

-Ahmet saw me the other day.(= O beni birkaç gün önce gördü.)
Özne +fiil+nesne

The books belong to me/you/him/her/it/us/them
(Kitaplar bana/sana(size)/ona/onlara aittir.
(onlar bana/sana(size)/ona/bize/onlara aittirler.

Konuşma ingilizce’sinde; That’s her
(hım,us,ete)."ıt is only me" kullanımı doğru oldugu
Yazı İngilizcesinde:
“ıt is he ( I,you,she,we,ete.)who did it” kullanımı varır.
(= onu yapan odur)

1.She (her),gemi,uçak, motorlu vasıta, memleket ve hatta sehirler için sevgi ifadesinde kullanılır.
-That is the Love Boat. She is a beatiful ship
-Turkey is our country. We love her very much.

2.“It”, normalde cansız nesneler ve hayvanlar için kullanıldığı halde bebekler için de kullanılır.

3.“It” in diğer kullanımları:
a)Bilinmeyen bir şahıs ya da şeyden bahsedildiğinde
-Someone is moving stealthily about the house. It must be a burglar.

b)Hava durumlarını ilgilendiren fiillerle:
It is raining /snowing/freezing. It is very warm / cold /wet.

c)Zaman ne ölçü ifadelerinde:
It is half past two. . It is fifteen miles to our village.

d)Cümlede takip eden “mastar” veya “yan cümleye referans
vermek üzere “özne” ya da nesne olarak:
-It is easy enough to talk.
-İt was clear that he didn’t want to come.
-I take it for granted that she will stay with us.
-I find it difficult to solve this puzzle.

e)“It is/was…” ile başlayan cümlelerde “ gerçek
özne” ve “sıfat cümle”sinden önce:
-It was our training that we had that made us good teachers.

f)Gerçek özneyi vurgulamak için:
-It was my father, not my mother, who wanted me become an engineer.

g)Tüm cümleye referans vermek için:
-She has saved my life. I will never forget it.

gibi fiillerden sonra “SO”,”IT” yerine
Will you pass your exam?
I thınk/hope/believe/suppose/expect so

Bu yapıların olumsuz şekilleri, iki şekilde ifade edilebilir:
1.I thınk/believe/suppose/expect so.
2.I don’t thınk/believe/suppose/expect so

NOT: İkinci kullanım,"hear,hope ve am afraid" ile kullanılamaz.

- “So” bir sıfat veya isimle birlikte “to be, to seem, to make” fiilleri ile kullanılır.
- There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.
- She has been a teacher there for more than fifteen years and I hope she will be so (= a teacher ) for many years.

4.“One”, bir sayı olup tüm sayılar gibi “zamir” olarak kullanılabilir.
- There is only one student there, not two
One of your brothers came to see me today.
Take one these chocolates.(singular)
Take some of these chocolates.(plural)

5.”One” in diğer kullanımları:

a) Özne ya da nesne olarak kullanılan “ONE” in “ONES” ve "ONE SELF" şekilleri vardır:
• One can only do one’s best.
• I don’t thınk one should overwork oneself.

“When one is given one’s choice of courses of action any of which would be to one’s disadvantage, one often has a difficulty in deciding what one ought to do” cümlesini aşağıdaki gibi ifade etmek
çok daha iyidir.

“When someone is/you are given his/your choice of courses of action any of which would be to his/your
disadvantage, he/you often has/have diffuculty in deciding what he/you ought to do”

b) Herhangi bir kimse anlamında:
- You are the first one who has ever explained it to us clearly.
- She is not one to be easily deceived.

c) “ Other! veya “another” ile zıtlık oluşturulduğunda, sayı anlamının bir diğer şeyle kullanımında:
- There were two choices open to us. We had to take either the one or the other
- These two twins are so much alike that we can’t tell the one from the other.

d) Önceden bahsedilmiş sayılabilen isim ya da isimlerin yerine “ONE” ve ONES” kullanımı:
- Mr Brown’s old car is a good one. It is even better than our new one .
- I like strong cup of tea beter than a weak one.
- I prefer red roses to whıte ones.
-There was mother bird in the nest and there were four young ones.
-Which girl is Mary Robinson?
-The one in the pink dress.
-Which biscuits do you like best?
-The ones with chocolate on them

Not: “ One” ,”own” ile kullanılamaz.
- I can’t write properly with your pen. I’d rather use my own.

e) “One” nın “idiomatıc” kullanımı:
- She is a teacher that is liked by one and all(=everybody).
- She can go or she can stay. It’s all one to me.

B - Possesive Pronouns( Mülkiyet Zamirleri)
“possessive adjectives” yani mülkiyet sıfatlar:
“ MY, YOUR,HIS,HER,ITS,OUR,YOUR,THEIR” isimlerden ve “ONE” dan
önce kullanılabili.oysa “ Possessive Pronoun”lar yani “mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs” tek başlarına kullanılır.

a)That is my book. That book mine.(= Şu benim kitabımdır Şu kitap benimkidir.)
- That is your car. That car is yours.
- That is his pencil. That pencil is his.
- That is her purse. That purse is hers
- That is its tail. That tail is its.
- Those are our cats. Those cats are yours.
- Those are their dogs. Those dogs are theirs.
- Our’s is the only garden that has trees in it
- Their house is older than yours( onların evi sizinkinden daha eskidir.)
- He took the bone from his dog and gave it to hers.
- The cherry tree gives it s share of color to the garden and the
Lilac tree gives its.
b)He is a friend of mine. ( one of my friends)
- This is a car of theirs. ( one of their cars)
- It was no fault of yours that we mistook the way.
- I gave him some plants of ours (= some of our plants)in exchange for some of his( some of his plants).
c) Note:A portait of Rembrandt ( one portraying him)
-A criticism of shaw (=opinion about shaw)
-A criticism of shaw’s ( =opinions by shaw)

C- Demonstrative Pronouns(=işaret Zamirleri)
“This,that,these,those,”isimlerle birlikte kullanıldığında “belirtme sıfat”ları oldukları halde,isim olmaksızın kullanıldığında “işaret zamirleri”dir.
a)I’d like to by this car, not that car. (sıfat)
This is what I want you to do. (zamir)
That is exactly what I did.
I believe you, but there are those who don’t.
My seat was next to that of the Mayor.
Compare Chopin’s waltzes with those of today.
That is what I thought last year; this is what I thınk now.

b) “The former” ve "The latter" da aynı zamanda işaret zamiri olarak kullanılır:
-The orchestra played two Beethoven Symphonies, the Third and the
- The former was played magnificiently, the latter was not so well done.

c) “Such”, “I have had such a busy day” cümlesinde “belirtme sıfatı” olduğu halde, “His carelessness is such as to make it unlikely that he will pass the exam.” Cümlesinde “işaret zamiri” dir.

They export a lot of fruıt, such as(=for example) oranges, lemons ete.

He gave me his help such as it was
=but it wasn’t of much use
My services, such as they are, entirely at your disposal.

D- Reflexive and Emhasizing Pronouns (Dönüşlü ve vurgulayıcı zamirler)

“Myself, yourself, himself,herself,ıtself,oneself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves” zamirleri

a) Öznenin yaptığı eylemi tekrar o özneye döndürürler yani özne ile nesne aynı kişilerdir.
- I shave myself every morning.
- You are teaching yourself English.
- They helped themselves to the cakes
- She saw herself in the mirror.(kendini aynada gördü)
- One should try to see onself a others see one
- It is pity we can’t see ourselves as others see us.
- Make yourself at home.
- There was so much noise that I could hardly hear myself think.
- I told myself there was nothing to be afraid of.

1) “Preposition” lardan sonra kullanılır.
She looked at herself in the looking glass
My darling loves me for myself, not for my money
I want a little time to myself
She is proud of herself.

Fakat zamirle ifade edilen şahsın kimliği hakkında hiçbir şüphe yoksa."Preposition" dan sonra şahıs zamirlerinin “objective” halleri kullanılır.

He took the food for the day with him.
She shut the door behirid her.
We have the whole day before us.

2 ) Dönüşlü olarak kullanılan fiilerle:
I pride myself on always having a tidy garden.
I hope the childiren will behave themselves.
We hope you’ll enjoy yourself at the party.
He applied himself to the task of organizing the finances of the firm.

Vurgulayıcı “SELF” zamirlerinin fonksiyonu tamamen farklı olup cümleden çıkarıldıklarında, o cümlenin anlamı bozulmaz ve genellikle cümlelerin sonunda kullanılır.

You yourself ( You and not anyone else) told me the story
(Bizzat kendin bana hikayeyi anlattın.)
I saw hım do it myself.
He went into the village itself.
Never leave to others what you should do yourself.

Bu zamirlerin bazen “alone/on one’s own/without any help” anlamları vardır. Bu durumda “by” ile kullanılır.

This is a machine that works by itself(=alone/on its own/ without help)
(= Bu kendi başına çalışan bir makinedır)

The little boy travelled from Ankara to New York by himself
We can’t do all the work ourselves(=withoult help)in a such a big house.
I tried to move the piano into the other room myself, but couldn’t manage it.

E- İnterrogative Pronouns (= soru zamirleri)

Bu zamirler “WHO, WHOM,WHOSE,WHICH,WHAT” olup, her zaman fiillerden önce soru oluşturmada kullanılır.
Who/ What broke the dishes?
Which do you prefer, coffee or tea
Whose are these gloves?
Who(m) did they ofter the scholarship to?
(=To whom did they ofter the scholarship?)
Who /what is that man talking to the journalist?
What is he like to look at as a person?

a) “ What” daha fazla şeylerden “which” ise sınırlı sayıda olanlardan seçim yapıldığında kullanılır.

What are you talking in your examination?
I’m talking English,French and German
Which of them is your best subject?
1. who would like to go out with me?
2. which of you would like to go out with me?

Birinci cümlede konuşmacı dışarı cıkmak isteyen herkesi, ikinci cümlede ise belli sayıda kişiyi dişarı çıkarmak ister.
b) Hayret,kızgınlık ve öfke ifadeleri:“WHAT,WHO,WHİCH+EVER” ile yapılır.
Whoever can be calling at this time of night?
(=on earth/in the world)
(= Hay Allah kahretsin! Gecenin bu vaktinde kim arıyor olabilir?
What ever were you thinking of to suggest such a plan?
Who ever heard of such a stilly idea?
He gets up at five o’clock every morning.
What ever for?

F- İndefinite Pronouns (Belgisiz zamirler)

Pek çoğu sıfat şeklinde “determiner”lar olarak da kullanılan bu gruptaki zamirler aşağıdaki içerirler:
Some (=thing,body,-one)
any (-thing,boyda;-one);no(-thing,body;-one);every(-thing,body;-all,one,none,other,another,much,many,less,more;(a)few,(a)little,enougheach,either,neither.
A : Have you any money? (= Do you have any money ?)(sıfat)
B : No I have not any Money.( =No, I don’t have any Money)
=no Money

Ask john if he has any. (zamir)
If only (=I wish) I had some red roses. (sıfat)
I must try to grow some next year.(zamir)
He told me a lot of other things that I can’t remember now.(sıfat)
Which one are you goingto choose that one or the other. (zamir)
At the party each child was given an apple and a bag of sweets.(sıfat)
Each of them was gıven a present from the host. (zamir)
Either of these machines is suitable for the work I want done.(zamir)
Neither of my friendes has yet to come (zamir)
There is a train at 11:35 and one at 12:00; either train will will get you thare in time for the conferance.(sıfat)
If you don’t want either of these , there is another one at 12:30.(zamir)
We have travelled by the 11:30 train and the 12:50 and neither train had a restaurant car.(sıfat)
When the genaral saw his troops retreat, he cried:” All is lost”(=everything)
All is well that ends well.(the whole of)
All the students are present.(sıfat)
All are welcome.(zamir)
I don’t like to speak before all these people .(sıfat)
He has written six novels and all of them are good (zamir)
That is the sort of job that all boys like doing.
That is the sort of job that every boy likes doing.
The explosion broke all the Windows.(bütün pencereleri)
The explosion broke every window.(her pencereyi)

Anlam ve kullanım açısından “EVERY”(=her)ve “EACH” (=her bir/i) arasında bazı farklılıklar vardır:
"Each" toplam sayı iki veya daha fazla olduğunda; "every",toplam sayı ikiden fazla olduğunda kullanılır.
"Every" ayrı ayrı olanları bir bütün içine topladığı halde , “each” bunları teker teker bir bütün içine yayar:
Each must do his best. (zamir)
They each signed the paper. (zamir)
The teacher came to school with a bag of apples and gave the students two each.(zamir)

Each man must do his best (sıfat)
Each person signed the paper. (sıfat)
He gave each boy two apples.(sıfat)
Before choosing a pen, she looked at each one. (sıfat)
Every man must do his best. (sıfat)
Every person signed the paper. (sıfat)
He gave every boy two apples. (sıfat)
Everyone knows that Ankara is the capital of Turkey.
Everything he say is true.
I have kept every one of her letters.

NOT 1:
"each, every, everyone, everybody, everything"
kendilerine tekil fiil alırlar.
NOT 2:
Aşağıdaki yapılarda “every” nin yerine “each” kullanılmaz:
I go there every other day. (=gün aşırı)
=on alternete days.
He visits us every two days.(=her iki günde bir)
We have a lesson on Monday, but on every other days there are no lessons.
(=there are no lessons on all the other days)

“All” gibi sıfat ve zarf olan “BOTH” bütünlük fikri verir ve sadece iki şey/ kişi için kullanılır.
I have two sons:
they are both doctors(zamir)
I don’t know which book is the beter. I will read both (zamir)
-Which of the two girls is he in love with?
Both his legs were broken in a car cras
There are houses on both sides of the avenue.(sıfat)
Both (the) men were found guilty (sıfat)

a) Sıfat ve zamir olarak “SOME” sayılabilen/sayılamayan çoğul isimlerden önce kullanılır.
There are some cows in the field (sıfat)
He has spilt some ink on the t5able cloth(sıfat)
He didn’t have any cigarettes so he went out to buy some(zamir)
If you ha ve no Money , I will lend you some (zamir)
b) Tekil sayılabilen bir isimden önce kullanıldığında “SOME” “A/AN” anlamı verir.
He arrived with some old book that he had picked up at a second hand book shop

c) “SOMETHING” ve “SOME” “Yaklaşık olarak” anlamını da verirler:
I will whistle the tune for you: it goes something like this
It will take some three or four thousand pounds to rebuild the house.
a) “ANY”, genel anlamda; neyin, hangisinin ve kimin olduğundan önemli olmadığı durumlarda kullanılır.
You can come any day you like.
Get me some cigarettes, please;any kind will do.
He is a man who will do anything (everything) for Money.

b)Tekil sayılabilen sayılamayan bir isim ve de çoğul bir isimden önce kullanılabilir.
Any sane person would have acted as you did.
Haven’t you any work to do?
Are there any cows in the field?

c) Aşağıdaki cümlelerde zarf olarak kullanımı vardır:
I can’t do any beter.
I am sorry to say that can’T come any sooner.

a)“OTHER”,sıfat ve zamir olarak kullanılır. Sıfat durumunda değişmediği halde “zamir” kullanımında kendisine “-s” takısı alır.OTHERS “An” ile kullanıldığında “ANOTHER” şekli vardır. THE OTHER(tekil) “iki şeyin ikincisi” anlamı verir.
He held a sword in one hand a pistol in the other.
One of my brothers is called Richard, the other is called Fred.

b)"The other(s) geri kalanı/ kalanları anlamındadır:

I got home by 7 o’clock , but the others din’t get back until about 8.others(s)”, “farklı ilave ve geri kalanı anlamındadır.
There are other ways of solving this problem.
I have no other friend but you.
Some like milk chocolate others prefer bitter chocolate.

d) “Another” ilave olanı farklı olanı ve daha anlamı verir.
He already has two cars, and now he has bought another.
The point of this pencil is blunt, will you please lend me another?
(=bir başkasını)
One day politicians say one thing and on another day something quite different
When the new extension has built hospital there will be room for another one hundred patients.

e) “Each other” ve “one another” karşılıklı duygu ve hareketi ifade ederler."Each other" iki "one another" ikiden fazla şey ve kişiler için kullanılır.

The two brothers love each other(birbirlerini)
Little children love one another (=birbirlerini)
They gave presents to each other
They were very fond of one another.

17 yıl önce
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